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C. K. Brinkmann, S. P. Rothenbuehler, S. Wolf, U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch; Multifactorial Influence on Macular Pigment in Healthy Individuals Evaluated by Food Frequency Questionnaire Bern (ffq Bern). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):604.
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Macular Pigment (MP) may have protective qualities against age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Its major constituents Lutein and zeaxanthin (L&Z) are essential micronutrients. We evaluated the coherence of MP density and distribution with dietary habits, individual predisposition, lifestyle factors and family history.
Prospective, cross sectional study on healthy individuals. Macular Pigment density (MPD) was measured using two wavelength autofluorescence by a modified scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). Influential factors were noted on our 35-item food frequency questionnaire (ffq-Bern). Coherence analyses were performed graphically and by univariate testing (ANOVA).
We included 156 healthy subjects (101 f, 55 m, mean age: 44±19 years). MPD was normally distributed measuring 0.47±0.16 DU (density units). MPD was significantly low in coherence to obesity, positive family history for ARMD, and low daily intake of L&Z (p<0.05). We found tendencies for low MPD when there was low intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and dark iris color, however statistically not significant (p<0.10). High sunlight exposure, smoking, age and gender had no significant influence on MPD (p>0.10).
We were able to trace individual factors that are connected to low MP. Screening for these by ffq-Bern may set reference for ARMD protection by nutritional supplementation.
Clinical Trial: :
www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00494325 KEK 73/05 Ethikkomission Bern
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