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S. Kabasawa, K. Mori, P. L. Gehlbach, K. Ueyama, H. Omata, M. Oosaki, H. Iizuka, T. Awata, S. Yoneya; Age and Cigarette Smoking, But Not Gender, Moderately Influence the Risk of AMD and PCV in a Japanese Population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):605. doi: https://doi.org/.
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To evaluate the association of environmental factors with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a native Japanese population.
The study cohort included 177 patients with AMD, 71 patients with PCV and 142 subjects without either AMD or PCV. Each participant provided a complete data set of information assessing a standardized set of potential associated factors such as: age, sex, smoking history (pack-year), body mass index (BMI), history of cardiovascular disease hypertension and diabetes. The data set was analyzed using logistic regression with covariates.
Age and smoking had a significant association with AMD (p=2.29x10-3; OR(95%CI): 1.05(1.02-1.08), p=1.17x10-4; OR(95%CI): 2.03(1.41-2.90), respectively). The incidence of PCV was also associated with age and cigarette smoking. However, neither AMD nor PCV was associated with other factors including gender.
In the Japanese population studied, age and cigarette smoking moderately influenced the risk of AMD and PCV. Although prior reports indicate a male predominance among Japanese with AMD and PCV, this study suggests that cigarette smoking rather than gender is the source of the reported predominance (confounding bias). This result is consistent with the reported rate of smoking for males (84%) and females (14%) in the Japanese population (source: the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare).
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