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L.-Y. Liu, J. Wu, H.-L. Xiao, Z.-J. She, X.-D. Zhou, Z.-L. Chen, G.-M. Zhou; Lumican Induction Correlates With Abnormal Cellular Behaviors in Retinae Exposed to Light in Early Neonatal Mice. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):775.
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Our laboratory (Gong, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45:4282) had previously established a lighting ahead model in neonatal C57BL/6J mice (black strain) and found that lumican was dramatically upregulated at transcriptional level in retinae at postnatal day 14 (P14). In this study we performed this model in CD1 mice (white strains are more sensitive to light stimuli) to corroborate the temporal and spatial expression of lumican in retinae and to investigate its potential functions in retinal growth and differentiation.
An incision operation was imposed on the right eyelid of neonatal CD1 mice at P4 letting the right eyes exposed to light 12 hr per day. Retinal total RNA and protein were isolated at P6, P9 and P12 for analyzing the temporal expression of lumican using RT-PCR and immunoblot assay, respectively, while immunofluorescent staining was performed to visualize its distribution in retina. Cellular proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were also estimated via western blots using anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), caspase-9 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies respectively.
Early lighting induces lumican expression in the retinae partially at the transcriptional level. In the lighting-affected retinae, lumican appeared at P9, and by P12 its glycoprotein deposition is evident in the ganglion cell layer, inner and outer plexiform layer and inner nuclear layer. With the accumulation of lumican, the retinae affected exhibited a different status with less proliferation, more apoptosis and EMT in contrast with the corresponding control. Ectopic lumican deposition thus is involved in the influence of early lighting on the retinal development.
For neonatal mice, dark environment is important for normal visual formation before the native eyelid open. During this period, early lighting functions as a deleterious factor resulting in abnormalities in retinal cell growth and transition via altering gene expression program. One of the important events is restoration of lumican expression in retinae and the ectopic lumican accumulation might be involved in the cell behavioral abnormalities induced by early lighting.
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