May 2008
Volume 49, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2008
Prevalence of Decreased Visual Acuity Among Preschool Aged Children in an American Urban Population: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • D. S. Friedman
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    International Health,
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Publich Health, Baltimore, Maryland
  • M. X. Repka
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
  • J. Katz
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    International Health,
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Publich Health, Baltimore, Maryland
  • L. Giordano
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
  • J. Ibironke
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
  • P. Hawse
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
  • D. Burkom
    Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Baltimore, Maryland
  • J. M. Tielsch
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    Epidemiology,
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Publich Health, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  D.S. Friedman, None; M.X. Repka, None; J. Katz, None; L. Giordano, None; J. Ibironke, None; P. Hawse, None; D. Burkom, None; J.M. Tielsch, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH Grant EY-14483
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2008, Vol.49, 1547. doi:https://doi.org/
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      D. S. Friedman, M. X. Repka, J. Katz, L. Giordano, J. Ibironke, P. Hawse, D. Burkom, J. M. Tielsch; Prevalence of Decreased Visual Acuity Among Preschool Aged Children in an American Urban Population: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):1547. doi: https://doi.org/.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose: : To determine the age- and ethnicity-specific prevalence of decreased visual acuity (VA) in White and African-American preschool aged children.

Methods: : The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study is a population-based cross sectional evaluation of the prevalence of ocular disorders in children aged 6 through 71 months in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Among 4,132 children identified, 3,990 eligible children (97%) were enrolled and 2,546 children (62%) were examined. This report focuses on 1,714 of 2,546 examined children (67%) who were aged 30 through 71 months. Parents or guardians of eligible participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a comprehensive eye examination. The eye examination included optotype visual acuity in children aged 30 months and older at the initial exam, with protocol-specified retesting of children with visual acuity worse than an age appropriate standard.

Results: : VA was testable in 1,504 of 1,714 children (87.7%) 30 through 71 months of age. It was decreased at the initial test (wearing glasses if brought to the clinic) in both eyes of 7 of 577 White children (1.21%, 95% CI = 0.49, 2.50) and 13 of 725 African-American children (1.79%, 95% CI = 0.95, 3.08). Decreased VA in both eyes after retesting was found in 3 of 594 White children (0.51%, 95% CI = 0.10, 1.48) and 8 of 753 African-American children (1.06%, 95% CI = 0.45, 2.10). Uncorrected ametropia was the most common cause of bilateral decreased presenting VA accounting for approximately half the cases of decreased visual acuity on initial testing.

Conclusions: : Decreased VA in both eyes of children 30 through71 months of age at presentation in urban Baltimore was 1.2% among White children and 1.8% among African-American children. After re-testing within 60 days of the initial exam and while wearing best refractive correction, the rate of decreased VA in both eyes was 0.5% among Whites and 1.1% among African-Americans.

Keywords: visual acuity • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: prevalence/incidence • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: risk factor assessment 
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