May 2008
Volume 49, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2008
Myopia in Preschool Children: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • A. M. Zhu
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • J. Lin
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • K. Tarczy-Hornoch
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • M. Torres
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • S. A. Cotter
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • M. Borchert
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • S. Azen
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • R. Varma
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • the MEPEDS Group
    Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  A.M. Zhu, None; J. Lin, None; K. Tarczy-Hornoch, None; M. Torres, None; S.A. Cotter, None; M. Borchert, None; S. Azen, None; R. Varma, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH Grants EY14472, EY03040, and unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2008, Vol.49, 1550. doi:https://doi.org/
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    • Get Citation

      A. M. Zhu, J. Lin, K. Tarczy-Hornoch, M. Torres, S. A. Cotter, M. Borchert, S. Azen, R. Varma, the MEPEDS Group; Myopia in Preschool Children: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):1550. doi: https://doi.org/.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose: : To determine the prevalence of myopia by age, gender, and ethnicity in Hispanic and African-American children 6 to 72 months of age.

Methods: : A population-based cohort of children 6-72 months of age underwent Retinomax autorefraction 30 to 60 minutes after cycloplegia with 2 drops of 1% cyclopentolate 5 minutes apart (0.5% for children <=12 months of age). If drops were refused, noncycloplegic retinoscopy was performed, and if Retinomax readings had a confidence interval <8, cycloplegic retinoscopy was performed. The eye with the greater absolute value spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error was analyzed. Myopia is defined as 1 D SE or greater.

Results: : Refractive error was measured in 3024 Hispanic and 2993 African-American children. Myopia prevalence decreased with age, being 10% (n=572), 8.2% (n=1091), 5.2% (n=1114), 3.5% (n=1061), 3.0% (n=1092), and 3.2% (n=1087) in children aged 6-11, 12-23, 24-35, 36-47, 48-59, and 60-72 months, respectively. The decrease was significant in both African-American and Hispanic children (p<0.0001 for both groups; trend test). There was no significant difference in myopia prevalence between genders in either ethnic group (Hispanic, p=0.15; African-American, p=0.59; logistic regression adjusting for age). Myopia was more prevalent in African-American children (6.6%) than Hispanic children (3.7%) (p<0.0001, logistic regression adjusting for age). Overall, for every age group, there is a higher prevalence of myopia in African-American children.

Conclusions: : Myopia prevalence is higher in African-American preschool children than in Hispanic preschool children. In contrast to studies examining school-aged children, these preschool children do not show increasing myopia with increasing age; on the contrary, myopia is more frequent in children younger than three years of age than in older preschool children, presumably reflecting active emmetropization in the first few years of life.

Keywords: clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: prevalence/incidence 
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