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K. A. Rose, J. M. Ip, E. Rochtchina, I. Morgan, P. Mitchell, Sydney Childhood Eye Study, Sydney Myopia Study; Height and Weight, and Their Relationship to Refractive Error and Ocular Biometry in Adolescent Australian School Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):1553.
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To assess the relationship between anthropometric measures, and spherical equivalent refraction and ocular biometry in 12 year old Australian students.
The Sydney Myopia Study randomly selected 55 primary and secondary schools and invited all students in Years 1 (mean age 6.7) and 7 (mean age 12.7) to participate. Cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction was performed, and axial length (AL) and corneal radius (CR) were measured using the IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss, Germany). Spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was calculated (sphere +½ cylinder) for the right eye only. Height (freestanding SECA height rod, Model 220) and body weight (Model TBF-300, Tanita) were measured using a standardised protocol.
Of the 2353 Year 7 students who participated (75.3% response rate), 2300 are included in this analysis and 49.1% were girls. The mean SER for boys was +0.58D (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.51 - 0.65) and girls +0.39D (95% CI 0.30 - 0.47). Boys on average were neither significantly taller (156.3mm, 95% CI 155.8 - 156.8) nor weighed more (49.8kg, 95% CI 49.1-50.5) than girls (156.0mm, 95% CI 155.7 - 156.4 and 49.8kg, 95% CI 49.1-50.5, respectively). However, boys had longer AL (23.58mm, 95% CI 23.54 -23.63), anterior chamber depth (3.58mm, 95% CI 3.57 -3.60) and larger average CR (7.83mm, 95% CI 7.82 -7.85) than girls (23.17mm, 95% CI 23.12 -23.22, 3.47mm, 95% CI 3.45 -3.48 and 7.73mm, 95% CI 7.71 -7.74, respectively). Pearson correlation of SER with age and weight was not significant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.26, respectively), however, SER was negatively correlated with AL (-0.61, p <0.0001) and height (-0.08, p = 0.0003). After controlling for age, the Pearson partial correlation still showed a negative correlation of SER with AL (-0.61, p <0.0001) and a negative but weak correlation with height (-0.07, p = 0.0013).
In the younger cohort from the Sydney Myopia Study, no significant correlation between SER and height was reported. In this older cohort there is a weak correlation of SER and height. This contrasts with data from Singapore, where a correlation of SER and height was reported in children, but was not found in adults.
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