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J. J. Siak, L. Tong, S.-M. Saw, E. L. Lamoreux, J. J. Wang, M. Rosman, D. T. H. Tan, T. Y. Wong; The Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impact of Symptomatic Dry Eyes in an Asian Population: The Singapore Malay Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):1913.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To describe the prevalence, associated factors and impact of symptomatic dry eyes in an Asian population.
A population-based survey was conducted among 3,280 (78.7% response rate) Malay adults aged 40-79 from southwestern Singapore. Participants answered a standardized questionnaire and had systemic and ocular examinations. We defined symptomatic dry eyes if one or more self-reported symptoms were often present or present at all times.
The prevalence of symptomatic dry eyes was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7, 7.4). The prevalence was higher in men compared to women (8.2% and 4.9%, respectively; p<0.001) and decreased with age in men (p=0.002) but not in women (p=0.101). After adjusting for age, gender, nature of work (outdoor/indoor), and housing types, factors associated with symptomatic dry eyes were cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% CI: 1.17-2.66), thyroid diseases (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.29-5.18) and higher incomes (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.13-2.68). Symptomatic dry eyes were associated with self-reported difficulties in performing their work, family and leisure related daily activities (p=0.006).
Symptomatic dry eyes are present in 6.5% of Singapore Malay adults aged 40-79 years, and associated with smoking, thyroid diseases and a reduced vision-related quality of life.
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