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Y. Tanabe, R. Kawasaki, J. J. Wang, T. Y. Wong, P. Mitchell, M. Daimon, T. Kato, S. Kawata, T. Kayama, H. Yamashita; Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene and Retinal Vessel Caliber: The Funagata Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):2134. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To examine whether mutation of the angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ACE) gene influences retinal vascular caliber in an adult Japanese in the Funagata Study.
The Funagata study examined an adult Japanese population aged 35+ years; 368 subjects (20.6 %) had genotype analysis for ACE polymorphisms and fundus photographs to measure retinal vessel caliber, using a standardized computer-based technique. Retinal microvascular signs (focal arteriolar narrowing, arterio-venous nicking, and enhanced arteriolar wall reflex) and presence of retinopathy were also assessed, by graders at the Centre for Vision Research (University of Sydney, Australia) using the Blue Mountains Eye study protocol. Insertion (I) or deletion (D) of the 287 bp Alu insert in intron 16 of the ACE gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
Genotypes D/D, I/D, and I/I were present in 34 (9.2%), 170 (46.2%) and 164 (44.5%) subjects, respectively and the distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Mean central retinal arteriolar equivalent (average arteriolar diameter, CRAE) was 173.8µm, 179.5µm and 179.5µm, respectively, in subjects with the D/D, I/D, and I/I genotypes. Mean central retinal venular equivalents (average venular diameter, CRVE) was 217.4µm, 216.1µm and 215.6µm, respectively, for subjects with the D/D, I/D, and I/I genotypes. CRAE was significantly smaller in subjects with the D/D than the I/D or I/I genotypes (-6.56µm, 95%confidence interval [CI] -12.45µm, -0.67µm) after adjusting for CRVE. This association persisted after additional adjustment for age, gender, smoking and body mass index (-6.73µm, CI -12.59µm, -0.87µm). CRVE and the focal retinal microvascular signs were not significantly associated with this ACE genotype.
In this Japanese adult population, we found the D/D ACE genotype (deletion of the 287 bp in both alleles of the ACE) was independently associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber. This finding suggests that the ACE gene may be involved in determining arteriolar caliber and may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
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