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T. Das, H. Rawal; Pattern of Eye Disease in Self-reported Diabetics Compared to Non-Diabetic Patients in Tertiary Eye Care Center in South India. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):2144.
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To determine the pattern of eye disease in self reported diabetics and compare with the age-matched non- diabetic patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center in southern India.
Hospital based comparative observational cross sectional survey.All self reported diabetics presenting to LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) in one month’s time were interviewed and examined. Age matched non- diabetic control patients (1:1) presenting to LVPEI during the same time period were also interviewed and examined. The ocular morbidity causes were determined and the principal cause of reduction of vision was ascertained. The secondary outcome measures were to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with self- reported diabetes mellitus, and to estimate the prevalence of common eye diseases such as cataract, glaucoma, and the refractory errors.
In the study period of one month 3784 new patients reported to the institute out patient service. A total of 472 (12.47 %) patients were self reported diabetics; 457 patients (96.8%) had non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The most common cause for reduction of vision in diabetics was refractive errors (n = 265; 28.1%), cataract (n = 238; 25.2 %), diabetic retinopathy (n=192; 20.3 %) and glaucoma (n=101; 10.7 %). Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) was seen in 20.3% (n=192) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was seen in 15 % (n=140) diabetics. 4.4% (n=21) were blind and 38%(n=8) of these were blind because of diabetic retinopathy. Out of total study population diabetic retinopathy was responsible for blindness in 1.6 %( n=8). The duration of diabetes was the only significant factor for diabetic retinopathy and age more than 50 years for occurrence of cataract.In the non diabetic age matched control patients the most common cause for reduction in vision was refractory errors (n = 418; 44.2%), cataract (n = 269; 28.49 %), and glaucoma ( n =63 ; 6.67%).Other ocular disorders in diabetic and non-diabetic patients respectively were parafoveal telengiectasis (0.84% ; n=8 Vs 0%) , anterior ischemic optic neuropathy( 0.84% ; n=8 Vs 0.1%; n=1) and asteroid hyalosis (1.4%; n=14 Vs 0.1%; n=1).
Refractory errors (28.1 %) and cataract (25.2 %) were as common cause of ocular morbidity in diabetics, as was the diabetic retinopathy (20.3%). Glaucoma at 10.7% prevalence rate was not too uncommon. The varied eye disease spectrum in diabetics calls for a thorough and comprehensive examination.
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