May 2008
Volume 49, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2008
Strategies to Recruit Extrinsic Macrophages Into Post-Infarct Optic Nerves
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • B. Slater
    Ophthalmology, University of Maryland/Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland
  • C. Zhang
    Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Y. Guo
    Ophthalmology, University of Maryland/Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland
  • S. Bernstein
    Ophthalmology, University of Maryland/Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland
    Anatomy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  B. Slater, None; C. Zhang, None; Y. Guo, None; S. Bernstein, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH Grant EY015304, unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2008, Vol.49, 3242. doi:
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      B. Slater, C. Zhang, Y. Guo, S. Bernstein; Strategies to Recruit Extrinsic Macrophages Into Post-Infarct Optic Nerves. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):3242. doi:

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : Extrinsic macrophage recruitment has been shown to improve tissue recovery after optic nerve and spinal cord ischemia. The cytokine GM-CSF can recruit extrinsic macrophages. We wanted to determine whether GM-CSF administration could enhance macrophage recruitment following rodent anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION), and the appropriate recruitment strategy.

Methods: : rAION was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three days post rAION induction, we sterilely injected GM-CSF into either the superior colliculus (SC) or the third ventricle, using stereotactic technique. Following injection, animals were allowed to recover, and euthanized seven days post injection. Eyes were enucleated; optic nerves were cross- and longitudinally-sectioned. Optic nerve sections were reacted with IBA-1 (global inflammatory cell marker) and ED1 (specific for extrinsic macrophages) antibodies to reveal the extent of macrophage recruitment.

Results: : Post-rAION, there is transient macrophage recruitment. Extrinsic macrophages are demonstrable 3 days following post-infarct. However, extrinsic macrophage numbers fall off in the optic nerves at later times post-stroke. SC injection yielded little additional recruitment when compared with control (vehicle injected) ONs. These macrophages were present primarily in the intra-orbital portion of the ON. Third ventricle injection showed robust macrophage recruitment further along the optic nerve.

Conclusions: : Macrophage recruitment via CSF administration may be a viable treatment option for recruiting extrinsic macrophages to the affected ON following ischemic optic neuropathy. Such an approach may enhance our ability to eliminate post-infarct degenerating myelin, and improve axonal regeneration following optic nerve stroke.

Keywords: neuroprotection • optic nerve • ischemia 

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