May 2008
Volume 49, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2008
A Novel Imaging Modality for the Relaxed Confocal Slo Reveals Pseudo-Stereopsis in Macular Disease Entities
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • S. Oshima
    NIDEK Co.,Ltd., Gamagori, Japan
    Medical Division,
  • J. Akita
    NIDEK Co.,Ltd., Gamagori, Japan
    Medical Division,
  • K. Mizuno
    NIDEK Co.,Ltd., Gamagori, Japan
    R & D Division,
  • S. Ishiko
    Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan
  • A. Yoshida
    Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan
  • F. J. Van de Velde
    Schepens Retina Associates Foundation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  S. Oshima, NIDEK Co.,Ltd., E; J. Akita, NIDEK Co.,Ltd., E; K. Mizuno, NIDEK Co.,Ltd., E; S. Ishiko, None; A. Yoshida, None; F.J. Van de Velde, NIDEK Co.,Ltd., C.
  • Footnotes
    Support  None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2008, Vol.49, 4257. doi:
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      S. Oshima, J. Akita, K. Mizuno, S. Ishiko, A. Yoshida, F. J. Van de Velde; A Novel Imaging Modality for the Relaxed Confocal Slo Reveals Pseudo-Stereopsis in Macular Disease Entities. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):4257. doi:

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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To demonstrate and interpret a novel imaging modality for the new developed relaxed confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO).


A new cSLO is equipped with confocal apertures that are placed off-center from the optical axis. Characteristics of our new aperture are the oblique asymmetric "Tyndall" and indirect retro-illumination. Such an imaging modality shows more retinal detail but with a typical lateral shadowing of topographical irregularities. This causes the impression of depth or shape by the observer(Ramachandran, 1988). A wavelength of 790 nm has been used for retinal imaging in the examples that encompass 11 cases with macular disease such as macular hole, cystic edema, and drusen.


Minute retinal radiating striae have been observed consistently around the macular holes. In branch vein retinal occlusion with macular edema, the extent of the cystic changes in the retina with adjacent retinal folds are visualized in a pseudo-stereopsis manner. Subtle topographical irregularities in the RPE-Bruch’s membrane layer, caused for example by the presence of drusen stand out clearly.


The often pronounced pseudo-stereopsis shape effect helps in the 3-D evaluation of macular disease entities. These qualitative images are helpful for interpreting the structural changes in macular disease with corresponding quantitative 3D or 2D optical coherence tomography data.  

Keywords: imaging methods (CT, FA, ICG, MRI, OCT, RTA, SLO, ultrasound) • retina 

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