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C. Kober, B.-I. Berg, C. Kunz, E. W. Radue, K. Scheffler, H.-F. Zeilhofer, C. Buitrago-Téllez, A. Palmowski-Wolfe; First Results in Full 4D-Visualization of Human Eye Movements Based on Dynamic MRI. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):4496.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Full time dependent spatial visualization of transversal and sagittal eye movement with special focus on extra ocular muscles (EOM) and optic nerve (ON)
For MRI data acquisition, a healthy volunteer (F, 28 Y) moved her eyes from left to right and up & down following a straight line of labeled points 1 cm apart with time increment 1 min. For each animation, 12-17 3D-MRI data sets (Siemens, 1.5 T, SE resp. 3D bSSFP imaging sequence) were taken with isotropic voxel size of 1 mm in x, y, and z-direction.By detailed segmentation, the orbital content was separated from the original MRI data. After refined image processing, anatomical structures, esp. EOM and ON, were visualized by a combination of direct volume rendering (EOM, ON) and shaded surface reconstruction (bulb, skeletal tissue). Continuous update for every time step provided dynamical sequences of eye movements. For better illustration, the final result was displayed in stereo (red/cyan anaglyphs).The concept was validated by repeated accomplishment of MRI acquisition and data processing.
Dynamical sequences of moving EOM and ON were provided. Partially, orbital and global layer of EOM were differentiated as well as details of the optic disc. Further, dynamic changes within the vitreous fluid consistent with the eye movements were observed. By experienced clinicians, stereographic visualization was rated as valuable extension of the concept.
The proposed visualization approach has the potential of rendering human eye movements as well as of reproducing the anatomical details. Though actually still very laborious, 4D-visualization and dynamic radiology are expected to significantly contribute to diagnostics of the organs’ functionality.Outlook: Further reduction of acquisition time and automization of the data processing are subject of intensive research. The next step will be application of this methodology to clinical cases.
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