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T. Barisani-Asenbauer, F. O. Eko, P. Lubitz, W. Lubitz; Bacterial Ghosts: A New Ocular Delivery System for Therapeutics and Vaccines in Infectious Ocular Surface Diseases?. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):4735. doi: https://doi.org/.
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Bacterial ghosts (BG) delivery system combines excellent natural intrinsic adjuvant properties with adaptable carrier functions for foreign antigens and therapeutics. The efficient tropism of BG for antigen presenting cells promotes the generation of both cellular and humoral responses which are important i.e. for chlamydial and/or herpetic immunity.
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are nonliving Gram-negative bacterial cell envelopes devoid of cytoplasmic contents while maintaining their cellular morphology and native surface antigenic structures including bioadhesive properties. BG production is based on the release of cytoplasm including chromosomal and plasmid DNA from bacteria by puncturing a hole through the envelope complex of Gram-negative bacteria from the inside to the outside. For vaccine design, several systems to anchor or entrap foreign antigens in the bacterial envelop have been developed.
In mice, mucosal immunization with a BG-combination vaccine against Chlamydiae and herpes simplex-2 elicited secretory IgA and IgG2a antibodies to both chlamydial and HSV-2 antigens in serum and vaginal secretions. Antigen-specific mucosal and systemic T helper type 1 responses were measured by increased interferon-gamma levels produced by immune T cells in response to restimulation with target antigen in vitro.In an anti-fertility program for possums, mucosal immunization using BG via conjunctival/nasal route reduced the fertility in treated possums by 36% showing that immunization using BG-systems by conjunctival/nasal route elicits systemic immune response.
The simplicity of both BG production and delivering of drugs and/or antigens makes BG particularly suitable for the use as a delivery system. Furthermore BG have a long shelf life without the need of cold-chain storage.Possible applications in ocular diseases, especially in ocular surface infections will be discussed.
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