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K. Lucas, H. Qiao, J. Stein-Streilein; Retinal Laser Burn Alters Ocular Immune Privilege. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):5138.
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Only a few events have been reported to overcome the immune privileged mechanisms in the eye. Here we report the effect of retinal laser burn (RLB) on immune privilege in the anterior chamber.
RLB was performed by delivering 4 laser spots (diode laser) to the right eye of C57BL/6 mice. Anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID) was induced by anterior chamber (a.c.) inoculation of OVA followed by deliberate subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization with OVA/adjuvant. Peripheral tolerance was assessed by suppression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response in the ear post antigen challenge. To test the immunosuppressive quality of the aqueous humor (AqH), samples were extracted from RLB, non-burned, or naïve eyes. AqH was incubated with antigen presenting cells (APC) in the presence of OVA to determine if they induced tolerogenic qualities in APC. Tolerogenicity was determined by the presence of IL-10 mRNA (RTPCR) in the APC. In other experiments mRNA was extracted from whole eyes and evaluated by RTPCR for TGF-ß or IL-6.
As early as 6h post RLB and as late as 21D, OVA inoculation into the a.c. of either the burned or non-burned eye failed to induce ACAID. In addition, AqH harvested from the burned and the non-burned eye (24 hrs post RLB) did not to convert APC to tolAPC. RTPCR analyses of mRNA extracted from RLB and control eyes showed little or no change in TGF-ß; however, the inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, was up regulated in the RLB but not the contralateral eye.
These data show that RLB interferes with the immunosuppressive environment in the burned and non-burned eye; but the mechanisms causing the changes in AqH and inability to induce ACAID in the burned and non-burned eye may be different. Whereas the RLB eye has an increase in inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) the changes in the contralateral eye environment may be due to neuronal mechanisms. These data raise the possibility that laser accidents and/or therapy may induce changes in the immune privilege milieu of the eye and loss of this immune regulation may increase the risk of autoimmune uveitis.
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