May 2008
Volume 49, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2008
Nutritional Associations With Glaucoma Among Older Black Women
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • J. A. Giaconi
    Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute/UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • A. L. Coleman
    Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute/UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • F. Yu
    Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute and School of Public Health/UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • K. L. Stone
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, California
  • K. L. Pedula
    Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon
  • K. E. Ensrud
    Medicine and Epidemiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • J. A. Cauley
    Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • M. C. Hochberg
    Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland
  • C. M. Mangione
    Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group
    Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute/UCLA, Los Angeles, California
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  J.A. Giaconi, None; A.L. Coleman, None; F. Yu, None; K.L. Stone, None; K.L. Pedula, None; K.E. Ensrud, None; J.A. Cauley, None; M.C. Hochberg, None; C.M. Mangione, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  The Glaucoma Foundation, AGS Clinician-Scientist Award; Gerald Oppenheimer Foundation--Prevention of Eye Diseases; Research to Prevent Blindness. NIH RO1 AG005407, AG027576-22
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2008, Vol.49, 5453. doi:
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      J. A. Giaconi, A. L. Coleman, F. Yu, K. L. Stone, K. L. Pedula, K. E. Ensrud, J. A. Cauley, M. C. Hochberg, C. M. Mangione, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group; Nutritional Associations With Glaucoma Among Older Black Women. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):5453. doi:

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose: : Few studies report associations between nutrition and glaucoma in whites; no studies have evaluated such an association in blacks.

Methods: : 662 black women participated in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Bilateral disc photographs and suprathreshold visual fields were obtained. Optic discs were graded by two masked, trained readers. A glaucomatologist then reviewed all disc photos and visual fields. Another glaucomatologist confirmed all diagnoses of glaucoma. Food consumption was assessed by the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Relationships between selected fruit/vegetable/nutrient consumption and glaucoma were evaluated using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Trends were examined using the Cochran-Armitage trend test.

Results: : After excluding subjects missing FFQ and optic nerve data, 584 black women (88.2% of total cohort) were included. Glaucoma was diagnosed in at least one eye in 77 subjects (13%). Three or more servings/day of all fruits/fruit juices decreased the odds of glaucoma by 79% (OR=0.21, p=0.003) compared to consuming <1 serving/day. Eating more than 2 servings/week of fresh oranges (OR=0.18, p=0.001) and peaches (OR=0.30, p=0.004) was associated with less glaucoma risk. Greater than 1 serving/week compared to ≤1 serving/month of green collards/kale decreased odds of glaucoma by 57% (OR=0.43, p=0.015). There was a protective trend for glaucoma in those eating more fruit/fruit juices (p=0.029), fresh oranges (p=0.012), fresh peaches (p=0.002), spinach (p=0.041), and green collards/kale (p=0.006). There was a trend for higher intakes of vitamin A (p=0.015), folate (p=0.049), α-carotene (p=0.022), β-carotene (p=0.038), and lutein/zeaxanthin (p=0.041) to be associated with decreased risk.

Conclusions: : Fresh oranges, peaches, collard greens/kale, and spinach may decrease the odds of glaucoma risk in black women. Further investigation may identify whether specific recommendations of these foods and nutrients are warranted for glaucoma.

Keywords: clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: risk factor assessment 

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