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J. A. Giaconi, A. L. Coleman, F. Yu, K. L. Stone, K. L. Pedula, K. E. Ensrud, J. A. Cauley, M. C. Hochberg, C. M. Mangione, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group; Nutritional Associations With Glaucoma Among Older Black Women. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):5453.
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Few studies report associations between nutrition and glaucoma in whites; no studies have evaluated such an association in blacks.
662 black women participated in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Bilateral disc photographs and suprathreshold visual fields were obtained. Optic discs were graded by two masked, trained readers. A glaucomatologist then reviewed all disc photos and visual fields. Another glaucomatologist confirmed all diagnoses of glaucoma. Food consumption was assessed by the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Relationships between selected fruit/vegetable/nutrient consumption and glaucoma were evaluated using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Trends were examined using the Cochran-Armitage trend test.
After excluding subjects missing FFQ and optic nerve data, 584 black women (88.2% of total cohort) were included. Glaucoma was diagnosed in at least one eye in 77 subjects (13%). Three or more servings/day of all fruits/fruit juices decreased the odds of glaucoma by 79% (OR=0.21, p=0.003) compared to consuming <1 serving/day. Eating more than 2 servings/week of fresh oranges (OR=0.18, p=0.001) and peaches (OR=0.30, p=0.004) was associated with less glaucoma risk. Greater than 1 serving/week compared to ≤1 serving/month of green collards/kale decreased odds of glaucoma by 57% (OR=0.43, p=0.015). There was a protective trend for glaucoma in those eating more fruit/fruit juices (p=0.029), fresh oranges (p=0.012), fresh peaches (p=0.002), spinach (p=0.041), and green collards/kale (p=0.006). There was a trend for higher intakes of vitamin A (p=0.015), folate (p=0.049), α-carotene (p=0.022), β-carotene (p=0.038), and lutein/zeaxanthin (p=0.041) to be associated with decreased risk.
Fresh oranges, peaches, collard greens/kale, and spinach may decrease the odds of glaucoma risk in black women. Further investigation may identify whether specific recommendations of these foods and nutrients are warranted for glaucoma.
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