May 2008
Volume 49, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2008
Development of in situ Forming Vitreous Substitutes From Derivatives of Poly(methacrylamide)
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • X. Zhang
    Veteran Affairs Medical Center and Washington University, St Louis, Missouri
  • K. E. Swindle
    Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri
  • P. D. Hamilton
    Veteran Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, Missouri
  • N. Ravi
    Veteran Affairs Medical Center and Washington University, St Louis, Missouri
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  X. Zhang, None; K.E. Swindle, None; P.D. Hamilton, None; N. Ravi, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  VA merit review grant
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2008, Vol.49, 5599. doi:
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      X. Zhang, K. E. Swindle, P. D. Hamilton, N. Ravi; Development of in situ Forming Vitreous Substitutes From Derivatives of Poly(methacrylamide). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(13):5599. doi:

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Previously, we have presented reversible poly(acrylamide) based in situ forming polymeric hydrogels as vitreous substitutes. In this study we present the synthesis and biocompatibility testing of four poly(methacrylamide) derivatives with which we can employ our reversible gelling technology.


Briefly, an activated precursor was prepared using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of the prepared monomer N-methacryloxysuccinimide (MOSu). This gave poly(N-methacryloxysuccinimide) (PMOSu). Four primary amine-containing chemicals, ethanolamine, 2-(2-(aminoethoxy)ethanol, 2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol and 2-[(2-aminoethoxyhydroxyphosphinyl)oxy]-N,N,N,-trimethylethanaminium hydroxide were reacted with the succinimide group to give derivatives of poly(methacrylamide) (see figure). The cytotoxicity of these four derivatives was evaluated byin vitro testing using retinal pigment epithelial cells. By adding a crosslinker containing a disulfide bond, polymeric hydrogels will be prepared from this derivative and re-gelled in situ.


The obtained polymer PMOSu had a narrow molecular weight distribution. After hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide, the molecular weight of poly(methacrylic acid sodium salt) was 47.1 kDa by GPC, corresponding to a molecular weight of PMOSu of 80.2 kDa. The structures of four derivatives of poly(methacrylamide) were confirmed by 1H NMR.


Poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylamide) has already been established as having good biocompatibility and is being investigated for a number of biological purposes. We have synthesized related polymers and can effectively apply our technologies to use these polymers for vitreous substitutes.  

Keywords: vitreous substitutes • vitreous • vitreoretinal surgery 

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