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Y. H. Yoon, H. Chung, J. Hwang, J.-Y. Koh; Differential Cytotoxicity of Triamcinolone Acetonide and Dexamethasone on Cultured Rat Retinal Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):80.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To compare cytotoxic effects of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and dexamethasone (DXM) on various types of retinal cells and to investigate possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity and neuroprotection.
Primary rat retinal cultures were obtained from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and used for experiments after maturation (DIV≥10). Cells were treated with 25 - 800 ug/ml of TA and DXM for 24 hours. Cell viability and cell death were assessed . Immunocytochemistry and caspase assay were done.
With 24 hr treatment, TA caused significant reduction in the number of cultured retinal cells at concentrations of 100 - 800 ug/ml (p<0.001, all). On the contrary, DXM was toxic only at 800 ug/ml of DXM (p<0.001). Even with 12 hr treatment, 400 ug/ml TA induced a marked decrease in the number of GFAP (+) glial cells. Among neurons, Thy-1 (+) ganglion neurons were significantly decreased. In contrast, GABA (+) neurons were highly resistant. On the other hand, 12 h treatment with 400 ug/ml DXM was not toxic to any type of cells. Antioxidants significantly attenuated TA-induced retinal cytotoxicity. Caspase-1 activity as well as caspase-3 activity was upregulated after exposure to TA 400 ug/ml.
Clinically achievable doses of TA is toxic to retinal cells, especially GFAP(+) glial cells after only a brief exposure (12 hr). Its cytotoxicity on retinal cells seems to be mediated via oxidative stress and caspase activation.
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