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C. DelCourt, I. Carrière, J.-P. Cristol, A. Lacroux, M. Gerber, POLANUT Study Group; Dietary Fat and the Risk for Age-Related Maculopathy: The POLANUT Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):1150.
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This study aimed at assessing the associations of dietary fat with the risk of age-related maculopathy (ARM), in the framework of a population-based study from Southern France.
Nutritional data were collected using a dietitian-administered food-frequency questionnaire in 832 subjects aged 70 years or more of the POLA (Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l’Age) cohort Study. ARM was classified from retinal photographs using the international classification and included neovascular age-related macular degeneration, geographic atrophy, soft indistinct drusen and soft distinct drusen associated with pigmentary abnormalities.
After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking and self-reported cardiovascular disease, subjects in the highest quintile of energy-adjusted total, saturated and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) intake were associated with increased risk for ARM (OR= 4.74, 95 % confidence interval (CI) : 1.32 - 17.0, p for trend=0.007; OR=2.70, 95 % CI :0.94 - 7.7, p for trend=0.04 and OR= 3.50, 95 % CI : 1.09 - 11.2, p for trend=0.03, respectively), by comparison with subjects in the lowest quintile. Total polyunsaturated (PUFA) was not significantly associated with ARM (OR=1.02, 95 % CI: 0.29 - 3.53, p for trend=0.94). After adjustment for potential confounders and total fat intake, total and white fish intake were not significantly associated with ARM (OR= 0.97, 95 % CI : 0.41 - 2.31, p for trend=0.84 ; OR= 1.41, 95 % CI: 0.65 - 3.04, p for trend= 0.40), but fatty fish intake (more than once a month versus less than once a month) was associated with a 60 % reduction in risk for ARM (OR=0.42, 95 % confidence interval: 0.21 - 0.83, p=0.01).
Our study is consistent with increased risk of ARM in subjects with high dietary intake of fat, and in particular high MUFA intake. The risk for ARM was reduced in subjects consuming fatty fish more than once a month, suggesting a potential protective effect of long-chain ω3 PUFA.
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