May 2007
Volume 48, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2007
Effect of Oculomotor Auditory Feedback on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • G. K. Hung
    Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey
  • K. J. Ciuffreda
    Vision Sciences, State University of New York, New York, New York
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships G.K. Hung, Inventor/developer, P; K.J. Ciuffreda, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2007, Vol.48, 903. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      G. K. Hung, K. J. Ciuffreda; Effect of Oculomotor Auditory Feedback on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):903.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose:: To quantify the effect of oculomotor auditory feedback on the stability of eye and head movements during the golf putting stroke and on putting performance.

Methods:: Three novice golfers (2 females and 1 male) ranging in age from 20 to 21 years participated in the study. On the first day of the experiment, the subject putted without prior instructions other than to attempt to make the putt. On the subsequent day, the subject was trained using the oculomotor auditory feedback regimen for 15 minutes. Training consisted of attempting to maintain fixation within a criterion range of +/- 10 cm (~ +/- 4 deg) about a fixation target on a simulated putting surface. Within this criterion range, the tone was extinguished, but outside this range, the tone was heard. The subject was instructed to attempt to maintain fixation within the tone-free zone during the putt. The task was to complete 40 putts (in two sessions) to a standard size golf-hole 6 ft away. For each attempted putt, eye, head, and putter movements were recorded over a 3-sec period using a recently-developed wireless sensor system. Eye movements were recorded using the infrared limbus reflection technique, and head and putter movements were recorded using onboard accelerometers. The eye and head signals were sent wirelessly to a PC via a circuit board mounted on the subject’s visor, while the putter signal was sent via a circuit board mounted on the putter shaft. The data were analyzed over the interval from the beginning of the putt to the moment of ball impact. The root mean square (RMS) values of the eye and head signals within this time interval were calculated for each record, and the data were averaged within and across subjects. All values were converted to equivalent cm of displacement on the putting surface. Putt amplitude, duration, and accuracy were also monitored.

Results:: The mean RMS values of the eye movements (1.23 cm vs. 3.49 cm, p < 0.1) and head movements (1.20 cm vs. 2.19 cm, p < 0.1) were significantly less, and putting performance was significantly better (40.0% vs. 14.5%, p < 0.1) with the oculomotor auditory feedback present. Putt amplitude and duration were not significantly different (p > 0.1).

Conclusions:: Oculomotor auditory feedback, in conjunction with normal visual feedback, improved eye and head stability during the golf putting stroke, as well as putting accuracy. This result suggests that multi-sensory eye position error-based information can be combined at higher neural centers to enhance oculomotor control.

Keywords: eye movements • ocular motor control • eye movements: recording techniques 

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