May 2007
Volume 48, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2007
Luminance and Chromatic Multifocal Pupillographic Perimetry
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • X.-L. Goh
    Centre for Visual Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
  • T. Maddess
    Centre for Visual Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
  • A. C. James
    Centre for Visual Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships X. Goh, None; T. Maddess, Seeing Machines, Canberra, C; Seeing Machines, Canberra, F; Seeing Machines, Canberra, P; A.C. James, Seeing Machines, Canberra, F; Seeing Machines, Canberra, C; Seeing Machines, Canberra, P.
  • Footnotes
    Support ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science CE0561903, NHMRC Development Grant 410201
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2007, Vol.48, 1628. doi:
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      X.-L. Goh, T. Maddess, A. C. James; Luminance and Chromatic Multifocal Pupillographic Perimetry. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):1628. doi:

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose:: To investigate spatiotemporal and chromatic responsiveness of dichoptic multifocal pupillographic perimetry (MPP) in normal subjects.

Methods:: Twenty stimulus protocols were each examined in between 9 and 15 normal subjects. In all protocols multifocal stimuli with a dartboard layout, having 24 independent test regions/eye, were presented concurrently to each eye. Stimulus protocols differed in terms of the number of checks per region (1 or 4) and the presentation rate per region (¼, ½, 1, 2 and 4 presentation/s). Some stimuli were flickered at 7.5 or 15 Hz on each presentation. Four stimulus protocols presented red/green or blue/yellow chromatic contrast. Stimulus duration was either 133 or 266 ms. Each test lasted 4 min presented in 8 segments, equivalent to 2 min/eye. Multiple regression revealed multiple independent effects of the stimulus variants. The analysis method meant that about 10% of each record could be lost due to blinks etc. without affecting accuracy or the need to repeat the segment. All subjects gave written consent in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and ANU Human Ethics Protocol 238/04.

Results:: Each pupil responded to stimuli presented to the 2 eyes and so 48 responses were obtained per visual field providing 96 amplitudes and 96 temporal delay measures per 4 min test. Regional response contractions were summarized as Z-scores. Median per experiment Z-scores for luminance stimuli ranged from 2.2 to 6.22. The chromatic stimuli had smaller Z-scores. Amongst luminance stimuli contraction amplitudes were compared with a reference stimulus with presentations of a single check per region, for 133ms duration, at 1 presentation per second per region, with no flicker. Relative to this reference, amplitude was increased for 266 ms duration stimuli (1.14x) and for 0.25/s presentation rate (1.42x); and decreased for flicker (0.88x) and for 4 checks per region (0.59x), all with p<0.00006.

Conclusions:: MPP has the potential advantage over other forms of objective perimetry that no electrodes need be attached to subjects. 48 concurrently measured responses per eye with median Z-scores of up to 6.22 could be obtained in 4 min recording time.

Keywords: visual fields • pupillary reflex 

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