May 2007
Volume 48, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2007
Inter-Country Difference in the Cost of Age Related Macular Degeneration: Survey of Five Countries
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • A. F. Cruess
    Ophthalmology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • A. Lotery
    Ophthalmology, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
  • G. Zlateva
    Pfizer Inc, New York, New York
  • R. Buggage
    Pfizer Inc, New York, New York
  • X. Xu
    Covance Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships A.F. Cruess, Pfizer;Novartis, C; Pfizer;Novartis, R; A. Lotery, None; G. Zlateva, Pfizer Inc, E; R. Buggage, Pfizer Inc, E; X. Xu, Pfizer Inc, C.
  • Footnotes
    Support Research supported by Pfizer Inc
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2007, Vol.48, 2117. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      A. F. Cruess, A. Lotery, G. Zlateva, R. Buggage, X. Xu; Inter-Country Difference in the Cost of Age Related Macular Degeneration: Survey of Five Countries. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):2117.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose:: This study was undertaken to document the economic burden of NV-AMD on elderly patients in five countries.

Methods:: A total of 401 bilateral NV-AMD patients recruited from retina specialists in Canada, France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom (UK) were surveyed in a cross-sectional, observational study. Physicians’ records and patients’ standardized telephone interviews were used to record medical resource utilization, assistance with daily living, and social benefits. A societal perspective was taken to account for the socioeconomic cost of bilateral NV-AMD.

Results:: The mean age of NV-AMD patients was similar across countries (76.2-79.6 years). NV-AMD patients reported substantial health-related problems (i.e., falls and depression treatment) and associated health resource utilization. The annual cost included direct vision-related medical cost, direct non-vision related medical cost, and direct non-medical related cost. The average annual societal cost per bilateral NV-AMD patient treated was US dollars $9,667 in Canada, $8,457 in France, $14,321 in Germany, $6,597 in Spain, and $6,099 in UK. NV-AMD expense allocations were substantively different by country in the following categories: medical vs. non-medical cost; cost of unilateral vs. bilateral patients; cost of patients with different severity of NV-AMD, i.e. normal vs. moderate vs. severe patients.

Conclusions:: The societal costs of all NV-AMD cases are estimated to range between $772 and $3,772 million in these countries. Differences in national healthcare systems and NV-AMD treatment patterns were reflected in the wide variation of NV-AMD expenses across the five surveyed countries.

Keywords: clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: health care delivery/economics/manpower 

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