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G. E. Quinn, V. Dobson, B. V. Davitt, R. J. Hardy, B. Tung, C. Pedroza, W. V. Good, ETROP Cooperative Group; Prevalence of Myopia Between 6 Months and 3 Years of Age in Children Participating in the Early Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ETROP) Trial. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):3093. doi: https://doi.org/.
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Determine the prevalence of myopia and high myopia, at 6 and 9 months post term and 2 and 3 years postnatal in preterm children with birth weights <1251g who developed high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the neonatal period and participated in the Early Treatment for ROP (ETROP) Study.
ETROP trial enrolled 401 infants with prethreshold ROP in one or both eyes and were determined to have ≥15% risk of poor structural outcomes without treatment, using the RM-ROP2 risk management program. Eyes were randomized to receive laser photocoagulation at high-risk prethreshold ROP or to be conventionally managed, with treatment occurring only if threshold ROP developed. Children underwent cycloplegic retinoscopy at 6 and 9 months corrected age and at 2 and 3 years old. Excluded were eyes with vitrectomy, scleral buckling, iridectomy or eyes with glaucoma or cataract surgery.
Prevalence of myopia (sph eq ≥0.25 D) was similar in eyes that underwent treatment when they developed high-risk prethreshold ROP, compared to eyes with high-risk prethreshold disease that were managed conventionally, showing an increase from approximately 58% to 68% between 6 and 9 months, with little change thereafter to age 3 years. Both early treated and conventionally managed eyes showed an increasing prevalence of high myopia (≥5.00 D), beginning at approximately 19% at 6 months and increasing 4% to 8% at each successive examination. Zone of acute-phase ROP and the presence or absence of plus disease had little effect on prevalence of myopia or high myopia between ages 6 months and 3 years. However, eyes with retinal residua of ROP (straightened temporal retinal vessels or macular heterotopia) showed a higher prevalence of myopia and high myopia than did eyes with no retinal residua.
Timing of treatment of high-risk prethreshold ROP did not influence refractive error development. Although prevalence of myopia increased between 6 and 9 months and remained stable thereafter, prevalence of high myopia increased over time, with most of the increase occurring in eyes with myopia ≥8 D. Presence of myopia and high myopia was related more to severity of retinal residua of ROP than to severity (zone, presence of plus disease) of acute-phase ROP.
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