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T. J. Choragiewicz, S. Thaler, F. Schuettauf, A. Messias, A. Baryluk, C. A. May, R. Rejdak, Z. Zagorski, E. Zrenner, C. Haritoglou; Toxicity Study of Rhodamine in the Rat Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):3682.
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To investigate the effect of intraocular Rhodamine on retinal structure and function in an in vivo rat model. Rhodamine has been proven to be very effective in lens capsule staining and is a promising candidate dye for ILM staining in vitreoretinal surgery.
Adult Brown Norway rats were injected intravitreally with different concentrations of Rhodamine dissolved in balanced salt solution (BSS) at final intraocular concentrations of 0.00001%, 0.0001%, 0.001%, 0.01% and 0.025% or with BSS serving as a control. Retinal toxicity was assessed by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) backlabeling and counting as well as by light and electron microscopy 7 days after intravitreal Rhodamine administration. Electroretinography (ERG) was performed 48 hours and 7 days after intravitreal injections.
A significant decrease of RGC counts after intravitreal application of Rhodamine at concentrations of 0.001%, 0.01% and 0.025% was observed. The toxic effect was dose dependent and the most remarkable loss of RGC (p<0.0001) occurred after Rhodamine 0.025% (1393 ± 232 cells/mm2 , mean ± SEM) as compared to BSS control group (2269 ± 34 cells/mm2). Injections with lower concentrations (0.00001 and 0.0001%) did not lead to statistically significant retinal ganglion cell loss. Results of RGC quantification were confirmed by light and electron microscopy. ERGs did not show any differences at all concentrations of Rhodamine compared to the controls.
Results demonstrate that Rhodamine can be safely injected in doses up to 0.0001% for at least 7 days in rats. Yet, Rhodamine leads to a toxic effect on retinal ganglion cells at higher concentrations. However, one should consider that in this experimental paradigm we chose a very long experimental exposure time compared to the usual clinical setup in retinal surgery.
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