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S. Belalcazar, M. F. Delgado, H. Posso, G. Figueroa, A. Gutiérrez, A. Rico, M. Gómez, M. Herrera; Prevalence of Glaucoma in the Afrocolombian Population of Quibdó Colombia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):4347.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To estimate glaucoma prevalence in a native AfroColombian population.
The study was divided in two phases. The first phase was developed by two optometrists who screened 977 individuals, in the AfroColombian community. Quibdo is located in the Pacific Colombian region; it is underdeveloped with high indices of illiteracy. The authors traveled to Quibdo and transported the equipment. Individuals were recruited as volunteers. Evaluation included measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disc examination. Past medical, ocular and family history of glaucoma was taken. Analysis of the first phase resulted in 320 glaucoma suspects (IOP above 21 mmHg, and/or optic disc with suspicious cupping) who were included in the second phase. This was developed by two glaucoma specialists and two second year ophthalmology residents. Evaluation included slit lamp exam, IOP measurement, gonioscopy, optic disc evaluation, and ultrasound pachymetry. Frequency doubling technology perimetry was performed in ocular hypertensives and, or individuals with cupping ≥ 0.5. Results were analyzed with Excel and SPSS.
Prevalence of glaucoma was estimated in 5.3%. Of the 320 individuals evaluated in the second phase, demographics showed 66.6% females, and mean age of 55 years. 16.3% were confirmed to be glaucomatous, 21.6% were glaucoma suspects and 62.1% were non glaucomatous. The glaucoma suspects were classified as ocular hypertensives 2.8%, and suspicious cupping 18.8%. The confirmed glaucoma group had mean IOP of 25.3 mmHg (sd ± 10), mean pachymetry ± 505 µ (sd 34.5), and mean optic disc cupping of 0.7 (sd ± 0.2). The ocular hypertensives had mean IOP of 27.2 (sd ±4.2), mean pachymetry 523.7µ (sd ± 33.6) and mean optic disc cupping of 0.3 (sd ±0.1). The suspicious cupping group had mean IOP of 15.1 mmHg (sd ± 15.5), mean pachymetry 500.6µ (sd ± 38.6) and mean optic disc cupping of 0.6 (sd ± 0.1). Of the 320 individuals (640 eyes), gonioscopy was performed in 635 eyes, revealing open angles (Shaffer grade II to IV) in 602 eyes (94.8%), anatomic narrow angle (appositional angle closure) in 16 eyes (2.5%) and closed angles (synechial closure and or obstructed chamber angle) in 33 eyes (5.2%).
Glaucoma has 5.3% prevalence in the afrocolombian population. Blindness from glaucoma was found in 7 eyes (n=104, 6.7%) and 42 individuals (13.1%) reported positive family history of glaucoma. The lack of health coverage makes it a major public health concern in the country.
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