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N. Takeda, S. Yashiro, A. Uemura; Diabetic Retinopathy Observed in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):5011.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are both increasing in Japan. We present the incidence and findings of diabetic retinopathy observed in patients with HIV/AIDS.
First visit 294 patients with HIV/AIDS form 2004 to 2005 were investigated retrospectively.
Mean age of all HIV/AIDS patients was 37.8-year-old. Males were 267 cases (90.8%) and females were 27 cases (9.2%). Patients with DM were observed in 24 cases (8.2%). Mean age of patients with DM was 49.4-year-old, which was higher than 37.8 of all HIV/AIDS patients. Males were 19 cases (79.2%) and females were 5 cases (20.8%). Diabetic retinopathy was observed in 8 cases (2.7%), 15 eyes (2.6%). Simple diabetic retinopathies were 7 eyes (46.7%), preproliferative diabetic retinopathies were 2 eyes (13.3%), proliferative diabetic retinopathies were 2 eyes (13.3%), and interrupted retinopathies after photocoagulation were 4 eyes (26.7%). Soft exudates, which needed to distinguish diabetic retinopathy from retinal microvasculopathy of HIV/AIDS were observed in 5 cases (33.3%). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis occurred during follow-up of diabetic retinopathy in one eye (6.7%). In this case, careful examination of the soft exudate was important to distinguish CMV retinaitis from diabetic retinopathy.
Complicated cases of diabetic retinopathy were observed in patients with HIV/AIDS. Such cases are thought to increase hereafter, due to the increase of the patients and the aging of the patients with improved prognosis by highly active anti-retroviral therapy.
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