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T. Blanco, J. Merayo-Lloves, C. Martinez-Garcia, J. Alonso, I. Fuente-Ayuso, I. Alcalde, A. Murias, R. Proenca; Glial Cells and Corneal Wound Healing in an Experimental Animal Model of Refractive Surgery. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):5366.
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The cornea is abounded innervated by peripheral nervous system. Corneal nerves fibbers exert important trophic influences on the corneal epithelium, contributing to maintain the cornea and promote wound healing after external injuries. In the peripheral nervous system, the nitric oxide production and new glial cells proliferation contribute at the correct pattern of reinnervation after injuries. The aim of this work is to study both the role nitric oxide and the proliferation of new unmyelinated Schwann cells, in the corneal wound healing and reinnervation processes in an experimental animal model of refractive surgery.
Lothmann Brown adult hens underwent Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) Clinical monitoring was made during two months. Eyes were exenterated at sequential time points and fixed in 10% buffered formalin or Palay fixative. Sections were stained with H&E and Masson tricromic. S-100, eNOS, iNOS, nNOS, Alpha-SMA, TGFÎ²-1, TGFÎ²-1-RII and Gap-43 were detected by immunohistochemestry. Toluidine blue stain and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) were done or achieved
The clinical evolution of haze was correlated with the expression of S-100 and Alpha-SMA proteins. A high increase in eNOS and iNOS expression was found during the first week after surgery in the epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells. The levels of TGFÎ²-1 produced by epithelial cells and TGFÎ²-1-RII expression were increased during the first week after surgery. S-100 immunolabeling, Toluidine Blue and TEM demonstrate an increase in the Schwann cells population in the stromal anterior third under the basal membrane of epithelium, during the first weeks after surgery. These cells have its nucleii in the stroma and present prolongations through the basal membrane that they penetrate in the basal stratum of epithelium. Gap-43 immunolabeling demonstrates the growth of terminal axons in the limbus, corneal stroma, basal membrane and corneal epithelium.
Oxide nitric could exert an important role like signals modulator between epithelium and stromal cells regulating the proliferation and the direction of new unmyelinated Schwann cells. Probably, these new Schwann cells direct the correct reinnervation pattern after injuries.
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