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M. Torres, S. Azen, R. Varma, LALES Group; Risk Factors for Cortical Opacities in a Population-Based Cohort of Adult Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):5449.
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To evaluate risk factors for cortical opacities in a population-based sample of Latinos.
The data for this analysis is derived from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) a population-based prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos (primarily Mexican-Americans) age 40 and older. All participants underwent a complete eye examination by a trained ophthalmologist including grading of the Lens at the slit lamp using the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). Cortical opacities were defined by a grade≥2 in either eye. Participants were considered to have cortical only opacity if that was the only type present in both eyes. The reference group was participants who had no opacities in both eyes. Frequency procedures were used to determine the distribution of the risk indicators in each group (cortical opacity versus no opacity). Univariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of the risk factors for cortical opacity, adjusted for age and gender. Independent risk indicators were then identified and odds ratios(OR) were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model. All statistical testing was conducted at the 0.05 significance level, using SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).
Of the 6142 participants who underwent an eye examination, 5945 participants had a LOCSII grading in at least one eye. 468 participants were identified as having cortical only opacities and 4869 had no opacities. 608 participants were excluded from the analyses because they were identified as having other types of opacities. Participants in the cortical only opacity group were older (mean age±sd: 62 years ±8.6) compared to the group with no opacities (52 yrs ±8.6)(p<0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (OR=1.1), history of diabetes mellitus (OR=1.7), and higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels (OR=1.1) were independent risk indicators for cortical opacities (all p<0.01). No other risk indicators (gender, iris color, blood pressure, and history of hypertension, macular degeneration or glaucoma, or family history of cataracts, use of steroids or hormone replacement therapy) were found to be significantly associated with cortical opacities.
The risk of cortical opacities was greater in older Latinos, Latinos with a history of diabetes mellitus and those with higher glycosylated hemoglobing levels. Since cortical lens opacities can cause visual impairment, increasing awareness for prevention and control of diabetes mellitus may decrease the burden of visual impairment in Latinos.
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