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R. Shechter, A. Rolls, A. London, Y. Ziv, M. Schwartz; Toll-Like Receptors Regulate Adult Neurogenesis; Implication for Eye Therapy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):5650.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a significant role in the innate immune response. These pattern recognition receptors are usually expressed on immune cells and trigger cytokine production and cellular activation. Studies in our laboratory demonstrated that innate and adaptive immunity are both important for CNS (eye, brain, and spinal cord) protection, maintenance, and renewal.
To examine whether TLRs are involved in CNS cell renewal. Methods: We used adult neural stem cells and microglia in vitro, and TLR deficient mice both in vivo and in vitro.
Here we demonstrate that TLRs are expressed on neural stem cells. Moreover our findings indicate that TLRs regulate neural stem cell proliferation and have a direct effect on neuronal differentiation. Our in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that members of the TLR family elicit different neural stem cells responses. While TLR2 is directly involved in the cell-fate decision via PKC-dependent NF?B activation, TLR4, has an inhibitory effect on neurongenesis.
Our study emphasizes the specificity and diversity of TLR-mediated regulation of adult neurongenesis, and potential implications for eye therapy via the modulation of TLR responses.
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