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J.D. Aronowicz, E. Uchiyama, I.A. Butovich, J.P. McCulley; Effect of Commercial Artificial Tears on Aqueous Tear Evaporation . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):247.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To evaluate the effects of 5 commercially available artificial tears and ocular lubricants on aqueous tear evaporation in patients with a diagnosis of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS).
Sixteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of KCS with ocular surface vital staining were enrolled. Aqueous tear evaporative rate was determined at baseline, i.e., before the application of any drop on the eye, and also 15 minutes after the instillation of one 40µl drop of one of five commercially available "dry eye" drops. The effect of each of these preparations was tested on five different days. The drops used in this study included: two lipid emulsions, one demulcent tear, one in situ gelling product, and one external lipid preparation.
The mean baseline evaporative rate for the 16 patients was 0.063±0.034 µl/cm2/min at 20 to 25% RH, 0.059±0.032 µl/cm2/min at 25 to 30% RH, 0.053±0.030 µl/cm2/min at 30 to 35% RH, 0.044±0.026 µl/cm2/min at 35 to 45% RH, and 0.037±0.021 µl/cm2/min at 40 to 45% RH. None of the five commercial preparations had a statistically significant impact on the evaporative rate when measured at 15 minutes after instillation of one 40 µl drop. There were however trends of both increasing and decreasing evaporation among the preparations tested.
Aqueous tear evaporation contributes significantly to tear turnover, i.e., loss of aqueous tears and is relative humidity dependent. It was not possible to demonstrate a statistically significant positive or negative impact on the evaporative rate with the testing methods used in this study, i.e., aqueous tear evaporation rate at 15 minutes after instillation of one 40 µl commercial "artificial tear" drop. Studies to determine evaporation rate at more delayed time points are underway.
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