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E.W. Chong, L.D. Robman, J.A. Simpson, K. Aung, D.R. English, G.G. Giles, R.H. Guymer; The Associations of Dietary Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Fats With Age–Related Macular Degeneration: The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):1133.
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To evaluate the associations of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and fats with the prevalence of age–related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS).
In this prospective cohort study of 41,528 participants, baseline nutrient intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire completed on enrolment in 1990–94. In the follow up study, 2003 onwards, digital fundal photographs are being taken with a non–mydriatic camera and graded for AMD. We present an interim analysis of 4217 participants aged 70 and over.
Higher trans–unsaturated fat intake was associated with a higher odds of late AMD, odds ratio (OR) 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.52, p=.03) per standard deviation of intake. Higher butter intake showed the same trends for any AMD (OR 1.20, p=.07). Higher olive oil intake was protective for late AMD, OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.2– 0.94, p=.04). While fish intake as a whole showed no statistically significant association with AMD, higher fried fish intake increased the risk for late AMD, OR 2.52 (95% CI 1.42– 4.64, p=.002); in contrast, steamed, grilled or baked fish had protective trends (OR 0.48, p=.07). No other significant associations between total fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, omega 3 fatty acids, linoleic acid, margarine and AMD were found. No associations between lutein, zeaxanthin and AMD were found (OR 1.00, p=.04).
Despite having a low level of trans–unsaturated fatty acid intake in Australia, we were able to show that higher trans–unsaturated intakes were associated with a greater risk for late AMD. A higher intake of olive oil was protective while lutein and zeaxanthin intake showed no associations with AMD. We will continue to evaluate the role of diet in this very large Australian population as the study continues.
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