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V. Chopra, J. Wu, V. Doshi, B.A. Francis, S. Azen, R. Varma, Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group; Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension and the Prevalence of Open–Angle Glaucoma in the Adult Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):3433.
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To examine the relationship of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors to the prevalence of open angle glaucoma (OAG).
Participants from LALES – a large, population–based study of self–identified, adult Latinos – underwent complete ocular and physical exams. Objective measurements of CV risk factors including DM via glycosylated hemoglobin (HgA1C) and/or random blood glucose levels, HTN (defined as history of HTN or systolic blood pressure >= 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure >= 90 mm Hg), and obesity (via body mass index) were performed. Previous medical history of vascular–related events such as myocardial infarction (MI), angina, cerebrovascular event (CVA), and congestive heart failure (CHF) was recorded. Independent risk association with OAG was identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for known OAG risk factors including age, gender, and intraocular pressure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
The cohort consisted of 5913 patients with a mean age 54.7 ± 10.9 years. 58% of the cohort were female, and 4.9% had OAG. The prevalence of DM with duration > 10 yrs in the OAG and normal groups was 19.8% and 6.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HTN in the OAG and normal groups was 61.9% and 38.3%, respectively. Independent risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of OAG were duration of DM > 10 years (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4) and systemic HTN (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01–1.8). Obesity, MI, angina, CVA, CHF, and level of HgA1C were not associated with an increased risk of OAG.
In LALES, duration of DM greater than 10 years and HTN were associated with an increased prevalence of OAG. These two risk factors are known to cause micro–vascular damage and may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve. The mechanism by which DM and HTN increase the risk of having OAG deserves further evaluation.
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