May 2006
Volume 47, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2006
Carotenoid–Mediated Retinal Delivery of Triamcinolone and Ketorolac
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • M.N. Lott
    Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA
  • M. Bartoli
    Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA
    Vascular Biology Center,
  • S. Chamberlain
    Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA
    Internal Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology,
  • D. Chu
    College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA
  • P. Bernstein
    Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT
  • D.M. Marcus
    Ophthalmology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  M.N. Lott, None; M. Bartoli, None; S. Chamberlain, None; D. Chu, None; P. Bernstein, None; D.M. Marcus, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2006, Vol.47, 3803. doi:
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      M.N. Lott, M. Bartoli, S. Chamberlain, D. Chu, P. Bernstein, D.M. Marcus; Carotenoid–Mediated Retinal Delivery of Triamcinolone and Ketorolac . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):3803.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Since the macula and retina preferentially concentrate carotenoids, we hypothesize that carotenoids will provide an ideal carrier for drug delivery to the retina. We synthesized a new class of drugs (consisting of triamcinolone and ketorolac linked chemically to zeaxanthin) and subsequently tested them in Japanese quail, a proven model for carotenoid studies.


Triamcinolone was esterified with zeaxanthin by dehydrating compounds. Free acid of ketorolac was esterified with the hydroxyl end of zeaxanthin. Six–week–old quail were then divided into the following groups: Control (n = 3) –– normal diet; IM (n = 4) –– normal diet and intramuscular zeaxanthin (0.7 mg 3X/wk for 6 wks); PO (n = 4) –– normal diet and oral zeaxanthin (0.7 mg 3X/wk for 6 wks); and XD (n = 4) –– diet without zeaxanthin or lutein. At week 12, tissues were harvested for HPLC quantification.


* Log transformation of data prior to ANOVA ** Retinal statistical significance unable to be performed due to only one control sample available a, b = values with the same letter are not significantly different  


These experiments demonstrate that a xanthophyll–deficient diet results in decreased tissue levels of zeaxanthin and lutein (statistically significant), obviating the need to breed quail for xanthophyll deficiency, as previously reported by others. In addition, oral administration of zeaxanthin may result in more efficient tissue delivery than IM administration (not statistically significant). Xanthophyll–deficient quail will be used to assess for oral carotenoid–mediated retinal delivery of triamcinolone and ketorolac.

Keywords: macular pigment • carotenoids/carotenoid binding proteins • age-related macular degeneration 

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