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A.L. Coleman, F. Yu, K. Stone, M.C. Hochberg, K. Ensrud, J. Cauley, K. Pedula, C.M. Mangione, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group; 15–year Decline in Visual Function in Older Women . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):1101.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To explore changes in visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) over 15 years in our prospective Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) cohort study of 9,704 older ambulatory Caucasian women who were age 65 and above when enrolled in 1986–8. Methods: Visual function was measured at every other post–baseline clinical exam; visits are designated as V0 (baseline, 1986–1987), V1 (1989–91), V2 (1992–1994), V3 (1997–99), and V4 (2002–2004). At V4, 2,656 Caucasian women (average age: 83.8±3.3 years old) had VA measured using Bailey–Lovie charts, and 1,797 (average age: 83.6±3.1) had CS measured using Vistech CS charts with five spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree). Previous VA measurements were available from V0, V1, V2, and V3 while previous CS measurements were available from V0, V1, and V3. Number of letters read correctly in the VA chart was converted to the log MAR (log10[minimum angle resolution]) scale and the number of gratings seen correctly in the CS chart was converted to a log (CS) score. The trends in VA and CS over follow–up time were analyzed using repeated–measures linear regression models with an autoregressive covariance structure. Analyses were also performed by adjusting for potential baseline risk factors including age, education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, self–reported health status, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), cognitive function and depression. Results: Over an average (±SD) 14.9 (±0.70) years of follow–up, VA worsened from 0.08 (±0.11), or approximately 20/25, to 0.20 (±0.22), or 20/40. Among 2,656 women who were able to participate in the study, 795 (30%) dropped at least two lines of vision (log MAR≥0.2) and 379 (14%) dropped at least three lines of vision (log MAR≥0.3). Statistically significant declines in both VA and CS were observed over the 15 year study period. A 10–year increase in age was associated with visual loss measured by log MAR of 0.06 (±0.006, p<0.001), or 3 letters. Conclusions: Both VA and CS decline over time among older women. Other potentially modifiable risk factors were not predictive of vision loss in this older cohort.
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