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E.M. Aring, S. Andersson, J. Ygge, A. Hellström; Visual Acuity, Refraction, Strabismus And Ocular Motility in Children With Surgically Treated Hydrocephalus. Is There a Difference Between Children Without or With Myelomeningocele . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):655.
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Purpose: To compare visual acuity (VA), refractive errors, strabismus and ocular motility in a population–based group of children with surgically treated hydrocephalus according to the association with myelomeningocele (MMC) or not (HC). Methods: All children (n=92) with surgically treated hydrocephalus born 1989–1993 in the western part of Sweden were invited to participate in a multidisciplinary study. Seventy–five children, (MMC; n=28; HC; n=47) (34 girls, 41 boys, median age 9.7 years (range 7.2–12.8 y) were enrolled in the ophthalmological investigations which included binocular linear VA, cover test, ocular motility (versions and ductions) and retinoscopy (autorefractor) in cycloplegia. Results: Binocular best–corrected VA was less than 0.3 (>0.5 log MAR) in 15% of the HC children but in none of the MMC children (p=0.0035). There was no significant difference found between the groups in VA between 0.3 and 0.65 (0.5 to 0.2 log MAR) nor did the occurrence of refractive errors differ. The occurrence of hypermetropia (≥+2.5 D) was 46%, myopia (≤–0.5 D) 10% and astigmatism (0.75 D) was 11%. Heterotropia was found in 68% (ns) and esotropia was the most common type (ns). However, there was a trend to more exotropia in the HC group 36% compared to 14% in the MMC group (p=0.0924). Ocular motility problems (versions and ductions) occurred in 18% and 59% respectively; equally in both groups and the ductions of the oblique muscles were the most affected. Conclusions: Low VA was significant more common among children with HC. However, refraction, the occurrence of strabismus and ocular motility problems did not differ significantly between the HC and the MMC children.
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