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S.M. Duma, E.A. Kennedy, I.P. Herring, A.L. Rath; Static and Dynamic Rupture Pressures of Human and Porcine Eyes . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):659.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the static and dynamic rupture pressure of human and porcine eye, and to develop injury risk functions for predicting globe rupture. Methods: A pressure system that utilizes physiological fluid to internally pressurize the eye was built to examine the static and dynamic rupture pressures for human and porcine eyes. Ten eyes were used for each test case resulting in a total of 40 experiments. Static testing was accomplished by increasing the internal pressure of the eye by approximately 0.02 MPa/second, while dynamic testing was performed at a rate of approximately 2.77 MPa/second. Rupture pressure was recorded by synchronized high–speed video and a pressure transducer. Risk functions were developed and used to calculate the risk of eye rupture, based on the intraocular pressure of the eye, for all four types of tests. Results: Static test results illustrate an average rupture pressure for porcine eyes of 1.00 ± 0.18 MPa while the average rupture pressure for human eyes was 0.36 ± 0.20 MPa. For dynamic loading, the average porcine rupture pressure was 1.64 ± 0.32 MPa, and the average rupture pressure for human eyes was 0.91 ± 0.29 MPa. Significant differences are found between average rupture pressures from all four groups of tests (p = 0.01). A risk function has been developed and predicts a 50% risk of globe rupture at 1.02 MPa, 1.66 MPa, 0.35 MPa, and 0.90 MPa internal pressure for porcine static, porcine dynamic, human static, and human dynamic loading conditions, respectively. Conclusions: This study is the first to gauge the structural integrity of healthy postmortem eyes, both under static and dynamic loading. It has been shown that significantly different responses exist not only between human and porcine eyes, but also due to different loading rates. The developed risk functions can be used in the laboratory for both experimental and computational work, and by the clinician to determine the risk of severe eye injury due to increased pressurization of the eye.
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