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M.P. Ventura, H.P. Solari, E. Antecka, N.E. Saheb, M.G. Baines, M.N. Burnier, Jr; Chemotactic Properties of Topical Medications for Glaucoma . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):1284.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: Leukocytes are involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammation through the release of enzymes and production of inflammatory mediators. Ocular inflammation can be associated with ocular hypertension or glaucoma, which often requires hypotensive treatment. Iatrogenic inflammation secondary to ocular hypotensive treatment is a side effect that is important to avoid. This study was performed to evaluate the chemotactic properties of twelve commonly used glaucoma medications. Methods: Leukocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of 14 healthy donors, and the cell concentration was adjusted to 2.5 x 106 cells/ml. We used undiluted liquid drugs and dilution of 1:100. Zymosan activated serum and formyl–methionine–leucine–phenylalanine peptides were used as positive controls and phosphate buffered saline was used as negative control. A modified 96–well dot–blot apparatus was used in a Boyden–style blind well chemotaxis chamber. Leukocyte migration into the millipore membrane was measured with a microscope equipped with a calibrated vernier. Each of the samples was assayed in duplicate for each dilution and the mean migration distance was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare between–group differences in mean migration distance. Results: Of the studied drugs, betaxolol 0.25% (Betoptic S®, Alcon Inc.), brimonidine 0.15% (Alphagan P®, Allergan Inc.), and dorzolamide 2% (Trusopt®, Merck Inc.) showed no significant chemotactic effect, while dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% (Cosopt®, Merck Inc.), timolol gel 0.5% (Timoptic XE®, Merck Inc.), brinzolamide 1% (Azopt®, Alcon Inc.), unoprostrone 0.12% (Rescula®, Novartis Inc.), bimatoprost 0.03% (Lumigan®, Allergan Inc.), latanoprost 0.005% (Xalatam®, Pharmacia Inc.), travoprost 0.004% (Travatan®, Alcon Inc.), brimonidine 0.2% (Falcon Generic, Alcon Inc.) and brimonidine 0.2% (Alphagan®, Allergan Inc.) were found to be chemotactic, as ranked from lowest to highest chemotactic effect. Conclusions: Differences were found in the chemotactic effect among the twelve drugs studied. Avoiding the use of drugs with the highest chemotactic effect must be taken into consideration when choosing a drug to treat patients with glaucoma and ocular inflammation. This may also have some implications in the decision of which drug should be discontinued prior to glaucoma filtering surgery.
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