May 2005
Volume 46, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2005
Prevalence and Causes of Amblyopia in a Population–Based Study of Young Adult Men in Singapore
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • M. Rosman
    Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore Armed Forces, Singapore, Singapore
  • T.Y. Wong
    Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
  • C.L. K. Koh
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • D. Tan
    Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  M. Rosman, None; T.Y. Wong, None; C.L.K. Koh, None; D. Tan, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2005, Vol.46, 1923. doi:
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      M. Rosman, T.Y. Wong, C.L. K. Koh, D. Tan; Prevalence and Causes of Amblyopia in a Population–Based Study of Young Adult Men in Singapore . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):1923.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract: : Purpose: To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in Chinese, Indians and Malay male Singaporeans. Methods: Population–wide study of all male Singaporeans born in the years 1978 to 1983 who enlisted in the Singapore military at 18 years of age. As part of their pre–enlistment examination, unaided and best–corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were measured. Persons with BCVA of 6/12 or worse after refraction were examined by an ophthalmologist for an underlying cause. Amblyopia was defined as BCVA of 6/12 or worse not attributable directly to an underlying structural abnormality of the eye or visual pathways. Amblyopia was further sub–classified. Results: Of the 122,596 persons examined, there were 428 persons with amblyopia, giving an overall prevalence of 0.35%. The prevalence was similar among Chinese (0.34%), Malays (0.37%) and Indians (0.41%, p=0.52). Among amblyopia individuals, anisometropia related to myopia was more common among Chinese (26.2%) and Malays (24.3%) than Indians (5.9%, p=0.03), but strabismus was more common in Indians (20.6%) than Chinese (4.3%) or Malays (4.3%, p<0.001). There were little racial differences in the proportion of people with meridonal, astigmatic or form deprivation amblyopia. Conclusions: The causes of amblyopia were different between Chinese, Malays and Indians Singaporean males, possibly reflecting racial variation in the frequency and impact of refractive errors and other underlying ocular disorders in childhood.

Keywords: amblyopia 

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