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J. Deneen, G. Macias, F. Peña, S. Azen, R. Varma, LALES Group; Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy in Latinos: Los Angeles Latino Eye Study . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):3270.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with the presence diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult Latinos with Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) is a population–based study of eye disease in Latinos aged 40 years and older. Study participants underwent an interview and a clinical examination that included measurement of blood pressure, random blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, visual acuity, and stereoscopic fundus photography (seven standard ETDRS fields). Photographs were graded in a masked manner using a modified Airlie House Grading System to assess presence and severity of DR. DR was defined as retinopathy in persons with definite diabetes mellitus. Univariate and stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors; Mantel–Haenszel analyses were used to evaluate the relationship of sociodemographic and modifiable factors to DR. Results: Of the 1187 participants with T2DM, 544 (46%) had diabetic retinopathy. Compared to females, males had increased risk of DR (OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.03–1.82). Factors associated with an increased risk of DR were: diabetes duration >15 years (OR=11.92, 95%CI: 7.19–19.74); hemoglobin A1c levels >6.5% (OR=1.62, 95%CI: 1.07–2.46); blood glucose levels >200 mg% (OR=1.86, 95%CI: 1.28–2.72); diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg (OR=1.77, 95%CI: 1.13–2.77); and insulin treatment (OR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.06–2.34). Conclusions: These data suggest that the increased risk of DR in adult Latinos is associated with several modifiable risk factors that have been identified in other racial/ethnic groups. Better control of blood glucose and blood pressure are likely to decrease the risk of development of diabetic retinopathy in Latinos.
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