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K. Durrani, H.A. Choudry, S.A. Younas, M. Tahir, S. Ahmad; The Significance of Type 2 Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Elevated Intraocular Pressure in Pakistani Adults . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):3659.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose:The increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes in Pakistan during the past two decades has made it a major public health issue in the country. The purpose of this study is to determine the significance of type 2 diabetes and other potential risk factors for elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in Pakistani adults. Methods:Five hundred and seventy patients visiting the outpatient departments of a large tertiary–care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan were studied. Group I comprised 289 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and Group II consisted of an age–matched group of non–diabetic patients. Intraocular pressures were measured by Shiotz tonometry. Patients with documented POAG on ophthalmologic examination and perimetry were defined as primary open angle glaucoma patients. Results:The median IOP was significantly higher in type 2 diabetics (17.1 mmHg vs. 15.5 mmHg in non–diabetics, p<0.05). Patients with an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP >21 mmHg) or confirmed POAG were 3.00 times more likely to have type 2 diabetes (RR: 3.00, 95% CI 1.81– 4.99). Patients with diabetes treated by diet and exercise alone were 2.76 times more likely to have and elevated IOP or documented POAG (RR: 2.76, 95% CI 1.57– 4.88, compared to non–diabetics), while those treated with insulin and oral hypoglycemics were 5.02 more likely to have and elevated IOP or POAG (RR: 5.02, 95% CI 2.14– 11.78). Female gender (RR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.21– 3.28) and a positive family history of glaucoma (RR: 2.04, 95% CI 1.07– 3.89) were also found to be risk factors for elevated IOP or documented POAG, while myopia was not (RR: 1.47, 95% CI 0.60–3.59). Conclusions:Type 2 diabetes is a significant risk factor for elevated IOP and POAG in Pakistani adults.
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