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M. Torres, S. Azen, R. Varma, Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group; Risk Factors for Nuclear Opacities in a Population–Based Cohort of Adult Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):3839.
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Purpose: To evaluate risk factors of nuclear opacities in a population–based prevalence study of ocular disease in Latinos of Mexican–American ancestry. Methods: The data for this analysis is derived from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) a population–based prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos (primarily Mexican–Americans) age 40 and older. All participants underwent a complete eye examination by a trained ophthalmologist including grading of the Lens at the slit lamp using the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). Nuclear opacities were defined by a grade > 2 in either eye. Participants were considered to have nuclear only opacity if that was the only type present in both eyes. Myopia was defined greater than minus 1.00 diopter. The reference group were participants who had a LOCS grading but had no opacities in both eyes. Univariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of the risk factors for nuclear opacity, adjusted for age and gender. Significant risk indicators were then evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. All statistical testing was conducted at the 0.05 significance level, using SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results: Of the 6142 participants who underwent an eye examination, 5945 participants had a LOCS II grading in at least one eye. 217 participants were identified as having nuclear only opacities and 4869 had no opacities. 859 were excluded from the analyses because were identified as having other types of opacities. The nuclear only opacity group had a higher mean age (69 years, SD ± 8.8) compared to the group with no opacities (mean age was 52 years, SD ± 8.6), p<0.0001. Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (RR=4.5), female gender (RR=1.7), current smoking (RR=1.8), and myopia (RR=2.8) were independent risk indicators for nuclear opacities (all p<0.01). No other risk indicators (birthplace, income, acculturation, education, iris color, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, history of hypertension, diabetes or glaucoma, or family history of cataracts, use of steroids or hormone replacement therapy) were found to be significantly associated with nuclear opacities. Conclusions: The risk of nuclear opacities was greater in women, myopes and current smokers. Since lens opacities are the leading cause of visual impairment in Latinos, smoking prevention/cessation programs may decrease the burden of visual impairment in Latinos.
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