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S.–M. Saw, W.–H. Chua, G. Gazzard, D.T. H. Tan, R.A. Stone; Eye Growth Changes in Myopic Singapore Children . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):4624.
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Purpose: To assess the changes in biometry and refraction in young children aged 7 to 9 years followed prospectively in Singapore. Methods: Children in Grades 1 to 3 aged 7 to 9 years in 3 Singapore schools were invited to participate in the SCORM (Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia) study. Yearly eye examinations in the school included cycloplegic refraction and biometry measures. Only myopic children (N=543) with 3–year follow–up data were included in this analysis. Results: The progression of myopia was fastest in the first year (mean=–0.88 D per year) and slowest in the third year (mean = –0.48 D per year) (p< 0.001). The 3–year cumulative myopia progression rate was – 2.03 D. Children who were younger, Chinese, female, and whose fathers had completed higher levels of education had significantly faster rates of progression of myopia, even after adjusting for these factors, school, reading in books per week and parental myopia. The 3–year changes in axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and corneal curvature were 0.89mm, –0.02mm, –0.01mm, 0.92mm and 0.01mm, respectively. Children with faster rates of progression of myopia had greater increases in axial length and vitreous chamber depth. Conclusions: The 3–year cumulative myopia progression rates (–2.03 D) and 3–year axial length increases (0.89 mm) are high. Age, gender, race and father’s educational level are the most important predictors of myopia progression. The primary structural component that drives the rapid elongation of the eyeball is increase in vitreous chamber depth.
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