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L.M. Quinn, D.T. Wheeler, S.K. Gardiner, C.A. Johnson; Normal Pediatric Thresholds Using Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):4662.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To test visual field thresholds of normal children, ages 5–17 years, with frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in order to: (1) ascertain whether children can perform such exams, (2) quantify testing times and reliability characteristics in a pediatric population, and (3) determine whether current methods of stratifying adult threshold values need revision for children. Methods: Ninety–seven children, ages 5–17 years, were recruited from local pediatric clinics and the general community. Children likely to have abnormal visual fields or abnormal test taking ability due to ophthalmic, neurologic, or behavioral problems were excluded. All children were familiarized with the testing procedure by the same protocol. Children were asked to perform a full threshold FDT visual field using the Humphrey Matrix FDT Perimeter with each of their eyes. Testing times and reliability data were gathered, and analyzed by age. Threshold results were gathered, analyzed and compared to the standards that have been established for tests in adults. Results: Full threshold exams by FDT perimetry were successfully carried out on 157 eyes of 83 children, ages 5–17 years. Younger children took significantly longer to carry out full threshold tests, increasing the test time by 8.3 seconds for each year younger than 14. Test reliability, using the standard criteria established for adults, decreased with younger age; fixation losses increased by 0.024 per year below 14 years. For children older than 14 years of age, full threshold mean deviation values were within normal limits according to the adult normative database currently used in FDT perimetry. Below 14 years of age, mean deviations for normal children decreased by 0.89 dB per year of decreasing age. Conclusions: Since FDT testing times are relatively short, most children tolerated the office visit simulation protocol of this study very well. It appears to be clinically feasible to have children undergo test familiarization, followed by sequential full threshold testing of both of their eyes. This study contributes to what is known about reliability characteristics for children using FDT perimetry. This research establishes a normative model for pediatric visual field testing with FDT, and by comparing visual field threshold results for normal children to established adult normatives, provides evidence that parameters for normal sensitivity need to be revised for children younger than 14 years of age.
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