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J.D. Aronowicz, W. Shine, J.P. McCulley; Aqueous Humor Concentrations of Fourth Generation Fluoroquinolone in Humans . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):5051.
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Purpose: To determine the aqueous humor concentration of two commercial fourth generation fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, after q.i.d. dosing in humans undergoing planned phacoemulsification and IOL insertion.Methods: In this ongoing study, forty–six human eyes without associated ocular disease undergoing phacoemulsification and IOL insertion, were dosed with one drop q.i.d. one day before surgery and one hour prior to planned entry of the anterior chamber on the day of surgery. Aqueous humor samples were collected, frozen and subsequently analyzed by HPLC to determine the concentration of the fluoroquinolone in the aqueous humor. All participants were masked throughout the investigative process.Results: Interim results indicate the aqueous humor concentrations achieved after the topical application of the two commercial preparations, i.e., VigamoxTM containing moxifloxacin and ZymarTM containing gatifloxacin, were as follows: moxifloxacin 1.86 ± 0.23 gms/ml and gatifloxacin 0.95 ± 0.15 gms/ml (p = 0.001).Conclusions: Moxifloxacin in the commercial preparation, VigamoxTM, resulted in a statistically significant greater penetration of fourth generation fluoroquinolone into the aqueous humor compared to gatifloxacin in commercial Zymar. Moxifloxacin reaches a Cmax which is 10X the MIC of the bacteria most frequently causing postoperative endophthalmitis.
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