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J. Shen, R. Green, P. Campochiaro; Direct Evidence of Oxidative Damage in Age–Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):5289.
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Purpose: Several indirect lines of evidence, including the Age–Related Eye Disease Study, have implicated oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this study, we sought to determine if donor eyes from patients with AMD display biomarkers of oxidative damage to macromolecules Methods: Ocular sections from donor eyes that had previously undergone detailed pathologic evaluation were immunofluorescently stained with antibodies specific for acrolein or 4–hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts, markers for lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine, a marker of oxidative damage to proteins, or 8–hydroxy–2’–deoxyguanosine (8–OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage to DNA Results: Eyes from elderly patients that had been pathologically characterized as normal showed no or minimal staining for the four markers. In eyes diagnosed to have AMD, autofluorescence was detected in soft or diffuse drusen, and in some areas of choroidal neovascularization. Specific staining for one or more of the four markers was seen in photoreceptors and ganglion cells in the central area of the retina in many of the eyes diagnosed to have either neovascular or non–neovascular AMD. There was much less or no staining in the peripheral retina. Staining was particularly prominent in outer and inner segments of photoreceptors in regions of retina adjacent to areas of geographic atrophy. Conclusions: Oxidative damage to macromolecules is prominent in eyes with AMD and is much greater in the macular area than in the peripheral retina. It is particularly prominent adjacent to areas of geographic atrophy.
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