May 2005
Volume 46, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2005
Normative Values for Pediatric Wavefront Using the VISX WaveScan
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • M.S. Niemeyer
    Ophthalmology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA
  • J.A. Dunbar
    Ophthalmology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA
  • H.V. Gimbel
    Ophthalmology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  M.S. Niemeyer, VISX F; Nidek F; J.A. Dunbar, VISX F; Nidek F; H.V. Gimbel, VISX F; Nidek F.
  • Footnotes
    Support  Support provided by VISX and Nidek
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2005, Vol.46, 5609. doi:
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      M.S. Niemeyer, J.A. Dunbar, H.V. Gimbel; Normative Values for Pediatric Wavefront Using the VISX WaveScan . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):5609.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract: : Purpose: To create a normative pediatric wavefront database allowing future comparative studies and a better understanding of the pediatric wavefront. Methods: A prospective study of elementary school children was conducted. Information gathered included an ocular history, penlight exam of the anterior segment, ETDRS visual acuity, pupil diameter, and wavefront scans with the Nidek OPD Scanner and VISX WaveScan before and after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate and 2.5% phenylephrine. Each Hartman–Shack image and WaveScan was viewed selecting the best scan. Data was analyzed by spherical equivalent and visual acuity (VA). Results: Reported here are the higher order aberrations (HOA) of 111 eyes of 56 non–cyclopleged children obtained with the VISX WaveScan. 107/111 eyes had 6mm pupils with the remainder having either 4 or 5mm pupils. 8/56 children wore glasses to the screening. No significant difference in HOA was found between the 43/111 with a spherical equivalent within 0.5 D of Plano and those out of this range. There was no significant difference between those with a VA of 20/25 or better (86/111) and those worse. When separating the data by VA of 20/20 or better there was a significant difference in HOA for Z5 (P=0.001), Z12 (P=0.023), and Z14 (P=0.048). Mean Zernike scores for the group as a whole were: Z3 –3.215E–02, Z4 0.31151, Z5 –0.16830, Z6 –1.425E–02, Z7 3.952E–02, Z8 –4.436E–03, Z9 –2.959E–03, Z10 –6.368E–03, Z11 2.774E–03, Z12 5.123E–02, Z13 –1.147E–02, Z14 1.380E–02, Z15 –1.063E–02, Z16 9.523E–03, Z17 1.627E–02, Z18 –2.920E–03, Z19 1.402E–03, Z20 5.076E–04, Z21 –1.627E–03, Z22 –2.378E–04, Z23 –1.951E–03, Z24 –1.970E–02, Z25 –4.064E–03, Z26 –1.193E–05, Z27 –4.794E–03. Conclusions:Little research has evaluated HOA in children. This study establishes the first wavefront database of healthy pediatric eyes. These normative values will be useful for future comparison in studies of the relationship between HOA, amblyopia and other pediatric eye pathology.

Keywords: refractive surgery: optical quality • refraction • refractive error development 

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