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V.M. Kattouf, J. Scharre, S. Tahir, J. McMahon, I. Lorenzana; Refractive Error and Amblyogenic Risk Factors in Hispanic Pre–School Children . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):5617.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of refractive error, amblyogenic risk factors, strabismus and ocular pathology in high–risk Hispanic children from 6 months to 6 years of age in an urban setting. Methods: In a multi–center (n= 16) study comprehensive eye examinations of 727 Hispanic children ages 6 months– 6 years were performed. All of the children were recruited from Early Intervention/Head Start Programs. Visual acuity determination, cover testing, stereopsis evaluation, cycloplegic retinoscopy and ocular health evaluations were performed by experienced clinicians. Hyperopia and myopia were defined as 1.00D or more in each principal meridian. Astigmatism was defined as at least 1.00D difference in refractive error between the two principal meridians. Amblyogenic risk factors were defined as bilateral spherical refractive error ≥ + 4.00D or – 6.00D; astigmatic refractive error ≥ 2.50D; anisometropic refractive error ≥ 1.50D in regard to hyperopia and astigmatism; and ≥ 2.00D of myopic anisometropia and constant unilateral strabismus. Results: Of the 727 children examined 341 were male and 386 were female. 1.2 % were 12 months and under, 8.7% were 1– 2 years old, 9.9 % were 2–3 years old, and 67.1% were 3–5 years old, and 12.7% were 5–6 years old . The prevalence of hyperopia was 54.6 % (397); the prevalence of myopia was less than 1%, with only 7 children exhibiting the condition. The prevalence of astigmatism was 21% (154). Approximately 8% (58) demonstrated risk factors for isometropic amblyopia and 3.2 % (23) demonstrated risk factors for anisometropic amblyopia. 12 strabismics were identified, none of these were constant. Only 11 children were identified with ocular pathology. Conclusions: In the Hispanic preschool population hyperopia and astigmatism were the most prevalent refractive errors. These refractive errors were also the basis for the isometropic amblyogenic risk factors and 90% of the anisometropic amblyogenic factors. High risk Hispanic preschool children demonstrated a greater risk (11%) for the development of refractive amblyopia than in the general population (2–3%); specifically in the form of isometropic risk factors. Isometropic amblyopia accounts for 1–2 % of all refractive amblyopia in the general population. 8% of the children in the study were positive for the risk. Constant strabismus was not identified as a significant amblyogenic risk factor in this population. A further study is underway to determine how many of those children with amblyopic risk factors actually developed amblyopia.
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