May 2004
Volume 45, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2004
Wireless Measurement of Eye, Head, and Putter Motions During the Golf Putting Stroke
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • G.K. Hung
    Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  G.K. Hung, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  none
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2004, Vol.45, 2538. doi:
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      G.K. Hung; Wireless Measurement of Eye, Head, and Putter Motions During the Golf Putting Stroke . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(13):2538.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract: : Purpose: To develop a wireless eye, head, and putter motion sensor system and to test and analyze the system in an actual golf course putting green. Methods: I presented previously (ARVO 2002, Program #4670) the effect of putting grip on eye and head movements during the golf putting stroke. To extend this study to an actual putting green environment, a compact wireless system was developed (patent pending). The system consists of: an eye–and–head component, a putter component, a receiver component, and a portable computer. (1) In the eye–and–head component, an infrared emitter–and–sensor combination is mounted on an adjustable aluminum assembly, which is attached to an eyeglass frame. Also, a very light–weight accelerometer chip is mounted directly on top of the eyeglass frame. Both the eye and head signals are input to Micro–Controller Board 1 worn on the subject’s belt. (2) The putter position–sensing component consists of an infrared emitter–and–sensor combination placed on the ground behind the putter. The putter signal is then input to Micro–Controller Board 2. (3) The two Micro–Controller Boards in turn send signals wirelessly at the same radio frequency to a remote receiver, (4) which then sends the data serially to a portable computer for recording, display, and analysis. In the software program, head acceleration is converted to position using double–integration. Six subjects participated in the study. Each subject attempted putts at 3 and 9 ft in an actual golf course putting green using the conventional, cross–hand, or one–handed grip. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. Results: The results were similar to the laboratory findings reported in my ARVO 2002 presentation. Variations in both eye and head movements were significantly greater for conventional than cross–hand and one–handed grips. Also, the duration of the putting stroke was significantly longer for the one–handed than the conventional and cross–hand grips. Conclusions: The compact system which has been developed can reliably record eye, head, and putter motions wirelessly in an actual putting green environment. The data can be displayed on the portable computer, which is placed either just off the green or on a golfing cart. Analysis of eye, head, and putter time courses can be used for comparison with expert data and for pinpointing deficiencies in the stroke. Moreover, immediate feedback regarding these important parameters can help improve putting performance. Therefore, this device can serve as a useful training tool either at home or at a golf instruction school.

Keywords: ocular motor control • eye movements • vestibulo–ocular reflex 

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