May 2004
Volume 45, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2004
Refraction in intermittent exotropia
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • D. Denis
    Ophthalmology, Hopital Nord, Marseille, France
  • L. Trinquet
    Ophthalmology, Hopital Nord, Marseille, France
  • J. Conrath
    Ophthalmology, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France
  • C. Benso
    Ophthalmology, Hopital Nord, Marseille, France
  • C. Fogliarini
    Ophthalmology, Hopital Nord, Marseille, France
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  D. Denis, None; L. Trinquet, None; J. Conrath, None; C. Benso, None; C. Fogliarini, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  none
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2004, Vol.45, 2555. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      D. Denis, L. Trinquet, J. Conrath, C. Benso, C. Fogliarini; Refraction in intermittent exotropia . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(13):2555.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract: : Purpose: The goal of this study is to measure refraction in 406 patients presenting intermittent exotropia. Methods: In patients that were followed for a minimum of 3 years, we recorded age, sex, ametropia and visual acuity. Classification of exophoria–exotropia was divided into 3 groups: type I (basic, X = X’ +/– 10D); type II (convergence insufficiency, X’>X); type III (excessive divergence, X>X’). Results: Average age was 20 years old. Sex ratio was 48.9%M:51.1%F. Globally, 42.3 % of patients were emmetropic (E), 19.3% myopic (M), 32.5% hyperopic (H), and 5.9% astigmatic (A). There were 45.8% of patients in group I, 38.7 % in group II, 15.5% in group III. Subgroup analysis showed the following distribution of refraction: –group I: E 48.9%, M 17.5%, H 27.4%, A: 6.2% –group II: E 37.9%, M 17.2%, H 39.8%, A: 5.1% –group III: E 33.3%, M 30.2%, H 29.4%, A: 7.1%. Conclusions: The largest refractive type in each groupis emmetropia in group I, hyperopia in group II and myopia in group III. Patient distribution shows fewer patients in group III than previous studies (Cooper, Bourron). Earlier management and total optical correction may explain the presence of fewer hypo–accomodative uncorrected myopic patients in our series, as well as angle stability, either phoric or tropic, far and near.

Keywords: strabismus • refraction • strabismus: treatment 

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