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M.K. Eder, N. Fariña, R. Sanabria, M. Samudio, A. Gines, M. Simancas, C. Cuevas, S.J. Froehlich, V. Klauß, H. Miño de Kaspar; Conjunctival Normal Flora in Neonates delivered in two Hospital Centers in North–Argentina and Paraguay . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(13):4959.
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Purpose: To determine the spectrum of the conjunctival anaerobic and aerobic normal flora of newborns, delivered in two hospital centers in North–Argentina and Paraguay. Methods: Conjunctival swabs of 101 neonates were taken immediately after birth. 70 children were delivered vaginally, 31 via caesarean section, all with asymptomatic eyes. Samples were taken prior to any application of prophylactic antibiotic. Both hospital sites were attending mostly patients of lower socioeconomic classes living in urban regions. Parents’ consent was obtained in agreement with the internal review board of each locality. All specimens were cultured on blood agar, chocolate agar, Thayer Martin agar medium, and in thioglycolate broth. The colonies were differentiated, counted and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Results: In the group of vaginally delivered neonates 15 different species were identified from 84 cultures (1.17 ± 0.68 species per subject): 25 Coagulase negative Staphylococci (30%), 18 Corynebacterium sp (21%) and 15 Propionibacterium sp (18%) were the most frequent observed isolates. In infants delivered by caesarean section 9 different species from 28 cultures were isolated (0.87 ± 0.62 species per subject). The most frequent bacteria were 14 coagulase negative Staphylococci (50%), 7 Propionibacterium sp (25%), 2 Staphylococcus aureus (7%) and 2 Streptococci (7%). Corynebacterium sp showed a significantly higher rate in vaginally delivered neonates than after caesarean section (p = 0.039; Fischer's Exact Test), gram negative rods only occurred in vaginally delivered newborns (11%; p = 0.067; Fischer's Exact Test). Conclusion: Coagulase negative Staphylococci were the most frequently encountered bacteria in both groups (30% and 50%). Gram positive rods were significantly more frequent in vaginally delivered infants. N. gonorrhoea and beta–hemolytic Streptococcus were not observed.
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