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J. Kiryu, S. Miyahara, A. Tsujikawa, H. Katsuta, K. Nishijima, K. Miyamoto, K. Yamashiro, A. Nonaka, Y. Honda; Argatroban Attenuates Leukocyte- and Platelet-endothelial Cell Interactions after Transient Ischemia in the Rat Retina . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):330.
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Purpose: Argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, has been shown to reduce neural injury after transient cerebral ischemia. It has also been reported that this neuroprotective effect results from an anticoagulant function. This study was designed to evaluate quantitatively the inhibitory effects of argatroban on leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions after transient retinal ischemia. Methods:Retinal ischemia was induced for 60 minutes in male Long-Evans rats by temporary ligation of the optic sheath. Argatroban was administered just after induction of ischemia. Leukocyte and platelet behavior in the retinal microcirculation was then evaluated in vivo with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. The expression of P-selectin and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was evaluated with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After 10 days of reperfusion, ischemia-induced retinal damage was evaluated histologically. Results: Treatment with argatroban suppressed leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions; the maximum numbers of rolling and accumulated leukocytes were reduced by 90.1% (P=0.019) and 58.7% (P=0.034), respectively, at 12 hours after reperfusion. Treatment with argatroban also suppressed platelet-endothelial cell interactions; the maximum numbers of rolling and adhering platelets were reduced by 91.8% (P=0.0078) and 78.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, at 12 hours after reperfusion. The expression of mRNA of P-selectin and ICAM-1 was suppressed significantly in the argatroban-treated retinas (P=0.0044 and P =0.0034, respectively). Histologic examination demonstrated the protective effect of argatroban on ischemia-induced retinal damage (P=0.0002). Conclusions:Argatroban treatment suppressed leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions after transient retinal ischemia. This inhibitory effect on postischemic blood cell-endothelial cell interactions might partially contribute to its neuroprotective effects.
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